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July 3, 2010 / ukrainevisit

Saint Nikolai City (Part two).

To shipbuilding and fleet the Nikolayev city life has been completely subordinated. Almost hundred years the staff of the Black Sea fleet here was deployed. During the Crimean war (1853 – 1856) it became the main rear base of the Black Sea fleet. The majority of the enterprises which were created in a city, concerned a military-industrial complex and in this connection Nikolaev many decades have been closed for visiting by foreigners. Even the first educational institution of a city – the Black Sea mate school based in 1798, – also has been connected with fleet. Such specificity has left traces on destiny, character and even appearance of Mykolayiv. Created in the end of ХV ІІІ the item the city local plan has been fixed by fast rates on district already in the first decade of its existence and entirely, without changes has remained up to now, representing to itself a unique town-planning monument of an epoch of classicism. Not many cities can be proud of it.

Contrary to everything, the Nikolayev grew, developed, led the life. Opening in 1862 in a city of commercial port was an incitement to transformation of Nikolaev to the big trading port. This fact has found the display in a municipal arm which has been confirmed in 1883 and is restored in 1997. So, in the project “Notes about the arms military-seaport Nikolaev” operating department taking up by a post stamp branch the Senate it has been specified: “As the city of Nikolaev is one of the pivotal ports of Southern Russia leaving митру and I believe a staff to represent in the arms of this city moreover the ship”. Already in the end of ХІХ the item the Nikolaev port took the third place after Petersburg and Odessa on volume of trade with abroad, and on the grain export steppe provinces were which suppliers, – the first place in the country. Nikolaev becomes the big industrial centre in the south of Ukraine.

Rough events of the XX-th century have not bypassed Nikolaev. In its October days 1917 named “red Peter Ukrainy”. In 1918 the city has endured for the first time occupation by foreign armies. In 1920 the Soviet power here has definitively affirmed. During the Second World War Nikolaev almost has been occupied three years by Hitlerite aggressors. But any ship, thanks to actions of underground workers, diversionary and prospecting groups, has not descended in this time from the Nikolaev building berths. And at clearing of Nikolaev of invaders in March, 1944 the unfading feat was made by 68 seamen-commandoes under K.F.Olshansky’s command. It was the unique case in the history of the Great Patriotic War when all participants of one fighting operation were the awarded ranks to the Hero of Soviet Union, the majority – posthumously.

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