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July 3, 2010 / ukrainevisit

Saint Nikolai City (Part three).

Names of many outstanding people that has found the display in Nikolaev monuments, names of Nikolayev streets, the areas and squares are connected with Nikolaev. Here served and A.S.Grejg and M.P.Lazarev’s admirals, the pioneer of Antarctica F.F.Bellinsgauzen and the founder of tactics of armoured fleet admiral G.I.Butakov, heroes of defence of Sevastopol of times of the Crimean war admirals P.S.Nahimov and V.A.Kornilov, composers of “the Atlas of Black sea” brothers E.P.Manganari and the author of the 4-volume edition “the Legend on Russian earth” major general A.D.Nechvolodov, the corresponding member of the Petersburg Academy of sciences, the first director of the Nikolaev observatory first in the south of Ukraine K.H.Knorre worked.

In Nikolaev V.I.Dal, being on military service, has started creation of “the Explanatory dictionary of live great Russian language”. Here, in Nikolaev, has finished the capital scientific work the founder Russian epidemiology, a member of 12 West European academies and D.S.Samojlovich’s scientific organisations (Sushchinsky), and professor M.G.Livanov has created in Bogojavlenske (nowadays the Ship city district) in 1790 the school of practical agriculture first in the country. Nikolayev has given the first experience of political strike to L.D.Trotsk (Bronstein). In a city there was admiral F.F.Ushakov, P.I.Sumarokov, A.S.Pushkin, A.M.Gorky, V.V.Mayakovsky, N.A.Rimskij-Korsakov, as M.S.ShChepkin, natives of Nikolaevshchiny – coryphaeuses of the Ukrainian theatre of N.K.Sadovsky, P.K.Saksagansky, M.L.Kropivnitsky here acted.

The first book on stories of the Ukrainian people on a native language – “History of Ukraine-Russia” – also has been written in Nikolaev. Its author – N.N.Arkas. The National artist of the USSR the Divine M. of M. Comes from Nikolaev The outstanding astronomer, academician F.A.Bredihin, the researcher of Arctic regions G.L.Brusilov, the known scientist in the field of a railway transportation the academician V.N.Obraztsov, the talented naval commander, the polar researcher and inventor S.O.Makarov.

July 3, 2010 / ukrainevisit

Saint Nikolai City (Part two).

To shipbuilding and fleet the Nikolayev city life has been completely subordinated. Almost hundred years the staff of the Black Sea fleet here was deployed. During the Crimean war (1853 – 1856) it became the main rear base of the Black Sea fleet. The majority of the enterprises which were created in a city, concerned a military-industrial complex and in this connection Nikolaev many decades have been closed for visiting by foreigners. Even the first educational institution of a city – the Black Sea mate school based in 1798, – also has been connected with fleet. Such specificity has left traces on destiny, character and even appearance of Mykolayiv. Created in the end of ХV ІІІ the item the city local plan has been fixed by fast rates on district already in the first decade of its existence and entirely, without changes has remained up to now, representing to itself a unique town-planning monument of an epoch of classicism. Not many cities can be proud of it.

Contrary to everything, the Nikolayev grew, developed, led the life. Opening in 1862 in a city of commercial port was an incitement to transformation of Nikolaev to the big trading port. This fact has found the display in a municipal arm which has been confirmed in 1883 and is restored in 1997. So, in the project “Notes about the arms military-seaport Nikolaev” operating department taking up by a post stamp branch the Senate it has been specified: “As the city of Nikolaev is one of the pivotal ports of Southern Russia leaving митру and I believe a staff to represent in the arms of this city moreover the ship”. Already in the end of ХІХ the item the Nikolaev port took the third place after Petersburg and Odessa on volume of trade with abroad, and on the grain export steppe provinces were which suppliers, – the first place in the country. Nikolaev becomes the big industrial centre in the south of Ukraine.

Rough events of the XX-th century have not bypassed Nikolaev. In its October days 1917 named “red Peter Ukrainy”. In 1918 the city has endured for the first time occupation by foreign armies. In 1920 the Soviet power here has definitively affirmed. During the Second World War Nikolaev almost has been occupied three years by Hitlerite aggressors. But any ship, thanks to actions of underground workers, diversionary and prospecting groups, has not descended in this time from the Nikolaev building berths. And at clearing of Nikolaev of invaders in March, 1944 the unfading feat was made by 68 seamen-commandoes under K.F.Olshansky’s command. It was the unique case in the history of the Great Patriotic War when all participants of one fighting operation were the awarded ranks to the Hero of Soviet Union, the majority – posthumously.

July 3, 2010 / ukrainevisit

Saint Nikolai City (Part one).

The territory of a modern city of Nikolayev is located on coast of Bugsky estuary at merge to the river Ingul. Uniqueness of its geographical site where the sun-scorched steppe meets blue shaft of Black sea, tart smells mother-of-thyme and a wormwood mix up with a salty fish wind of sea open spaces, has been noted by people during ancient times. The earliest archaeological monument which is found on a Nikolaev territory, is dated a neolith epoch (V – ІV thousand BC). The Nikolaev earth remembers Scythians, ancient Greeks, slavic tribes, free Zaporozhye Cossacks…

But intensive settling of the Nikolaev peninsula has begun in last quarter ХV ІІІ centuries already after clearing of Northern Black Sea Coast of Turkish conquerors and an exit of the Russian state to Black sea. The fleet was necessary to Russia. And under the decree of prince G.A.Potyomkin in a river Ingul mouth under a direct management of the colonel of M.L.Faleev in 1788 the new shipyard has been put.

Round shipyard the small town has started to grow. The name it has received a year later, after victorious storm of Ochakov by the Russian armies under A.V.Suvorova’s command. Ochakov was is taken in December, 1788, in day of Sacred Nikolay, the defender of seamen. In its honour also named a new city. With Sacred Nikolay’s name, one of the most esteemed sacred in Ukraine and in Russia, связанны and the first church constructed in a city in 1790, and the first ship. The 46-gun frigate “Sacred Nikolay” has been floated in August of the same year, and in July, 1791 near cape Kaliakrija it has received the first baptism of fire. Since construction of “Sacred Nikolay” at ship-building factories of a city, and them today three, it is constructed more than 2 thousand ships and courts, among which frigates, battleships, torpedo boats, submarines, etc. Nikolaev – one of two cities in the world where the heavy aviabearing ships were under construction.

July 3, 2010 / ukrainevisit

Dnepro-Bugsky estuary in Ukraine.

Dnepro-Bugsky estuary — open fresh-water estuary in northern part of Black sea, in territory of the Kherson and Nikolaev areas of Ukraine. Port — Ochakov.

Consists from extended in sublatitudinal direction of Dneprovsky estuary (length of 55 km, width to 17 km), and also narrow (width from 5 to 11 km) and the twisting Bugsky estuary extended in submeridialnom direction in length of 47 km. Prevailing depth of 6-7 m, maximum — 12 m (so-called. The Stanislavsky hole).

The Dnepro-Bugsky estuary was formed as a result of transgression of Black sea in the bottom current of Dnepr and Southern Bug. The estuary incorporates to Black sea passage the in width of 3,6 km (between Ochakovsky cape and the Kinburnsky plait). Southern coast low, sandy; northern, basically, high (till 20-35), are combined from argillo-arenaceous breeds, only on separate sites here meet peschano-rakushechnikovye plaits. The bottom near plaits sandy, on depth is covered suglinisto-sandy silt.

About 25-30 % of river drain of Dnepr and Southern Bug it is spent for irrigation and industrial water supply that causes increase in salinity of water in estuary. Thereof conditions of dwelling and spawning of separate kinds of industrial fishes, and also expansions of sea kinds phyto- and zooplankton and fishes (in particular — sprat) have worsened.

The Dneprovsko-Bugsky estuary has transport and fishing value; its coast — recreation area of Ukraine.

Additional descents of water are made for preservation of the nature of estuary from the Kahovsky water basin, strengthening and gardening of coast, clarification of sewage and transfer of the industrial enterprises into return water supply. The part of water area of Dneprovsko-Bugsky estuary is located within the Black Sea biospheric reserve.

July 3, 2010 / ukrainevisit

Southern Bug river.

Southern Bug— the river in the southwest of Ukraine in length of 806 km. Pool of 63 700 km ². The unique large river of Ukraine completely proceeding in its territory.

Origin of the  name.

V.V. Lobovo in the dictionary writes that the river was known at ancient Greeks under names of Gipanis, Ipanis, in annals — Bog, Boug. Exact value isn’t known. Polish linguist Tadeush Ler-Splavinsky the name deduces from balto-slavic Bog (“current”) or bougb (I “deviate, am bent”). The French hydrographer of Elize Reklju god connects it with word. Yan Rozvadovsky and Max Fasmer deduce hydronim from old German Bach (“stream”).

Hydrography and pool.

Southern Bug originates in Podolia, to the east from Volochiska and 90 km to the west of Khmelnitskiy of bogs on the Podolsk height, therefrom flow on the east through Vinnitsa near to which changes direction on southeast and the estuary Dnepro-Bugsky, near to excavation of the ancient city of Olvija and to Black sea runs further into Bugsky estuary and then forming together with Dnepr. In upper course flows on boggy district in low coast; on the average current — in deep valley; there are thresholds (especially on site from Pervomaisk to village of Aleksandrovka — Migejsky thresholds, Bogdanovsky thresholds, etc.). Further the river leaves on Prichernomorsky lowland.

Food mixed, with prevalence of the snow. High water from the end of February prior to the beginning of May, pickled from June till February. The average expense of water in 132 km from mouth in with. Aleksandrovka of 89,3 m ³/sek, the greatest — 5.320 m ³/sek, the least — 2,6 m of ³/second Freezes almost regularly in November — February; it is opened to the middle of March. Mineralization of water to 0,9 г/л.

The main inflows: Flat, the Wolf, Thorny, Ikva, Sluch, Homora (Khmelnitskiy area); the Ditch, Sob, Dohna, Savranka, Desna (Vinnitsa area); the cores left — Sinjuha, Mertvovod, the Titmouse in the Kirovograd area, Ingul in the city of Nikolaev, right — Zgar, Kodyma, Rotten Elanets.

Settlements on Southern Bug: Khmelnitskiy, Hmelnik, Vinnitsa, Gnivan, Ladyzhin, Savran, Gajvoron, Pervomaisk, Juzhnoukrainsk, Voznesensk, New Odessa, Nikolayev (50 km from mouth).

Southern Bug river Sights:

On the river tourism on kayaks and fishing is popular. On coast history and culture monuments, including church of 1561 in settlement Letichev, ruins of the Cherlenkovsky lock of XVI century of village nearby Selishche, monastery of Dominicans of 1752, palace of the Jaroshinsky XVIII-th century in settlement Tyvrov, water three-storeyed mill (material also settle down: stone and red brick), dated 1864

The part of valley of Southern Bug and its inflows is included into regional landscape park «Granitno-steppe Pobuzhe»

July 3, 2010 / ukrainevisit

Ingul — the river running into Bugsky estuary of Black sea.

Nominally it is considered the left inflow of Southern Bug, running into last on distance of 0 km from mouth. The area of pool of 9 890 Length of the river of 354 km. The river source is at height more than 170 metres above sea level near with. Brovkovo (Aleksandrovsky area of the Kirovograd area). The river flows in southern direction on the Pridneprovsky height. In the bottom part proceeds on Prichernomorsky lowland. In mouth — Nikolaev. River falling makes more than 170 m, river bias — In upper courses the narrow, twisting channel has 0,4 m./km. On site between villages Kostychi and Vinogradovka — plavnis. On the average current the channel extends to 30 m, in bottom in places to 80 and more. Depth mainly 0,7 — 1,2 m, in lower reaches — to 1,5. Speed of current to 0,5 km/s (1,8 km/h). Freezes in first half of December, it is opened to the end of February — first half of March. Freezing-up the unstable. Food snow, rain. River valley almost on all extent trapezoid, width to 4 km, depth to 60 m. of Coast rocky, with exits of granite and gneisses. The average expense of water near with.

Settlements (downstream): Rodnikovka, Ositnjazhka, Kirovograd, Kalinovka, Tarasovka, Ingulo-Kamenka, Verhneingulsky, Sednevka, Aleksandrovka, Anna-Trebinovka, Ingulsky, Sofievka, Free, Sand, Ingulka, Peresadovka, Mihajlo-Larino, Kalinovka, Voskresensky, Ternovka, Meshkovo-Pogorelovo, Nikolayev.

Inflows: Sugokleiea, Adzhamka, Sewing, Kamenka, Suhokleja , Beryozovka, Stolbovaja, Sagajdak, Gromokleja.

February 13, 2010 / ukrainevisit

Hello From Ukraine!

Enthralling stories of the most beautiful and interesting places of Ukraine. Our purpose, that yet more people knew, how many beauty is round us in Ukraine!

Ukraine is a surprising country, combining in itself contradictory on the face of it things: multinational culture is peaceful existence more than 50 nations on territory of the state, power of steel-making factories is ancient locks and forts, surprising beauty and coolness of the forests of Poles’ya and warm sandy bank of Crimea, where holiday-makers are from around the world weakened and rest, restoring forces before labour exploits…  Ukraine plugs in itself 24 areas and Autonomous republic Crimea.